Cardiology News / Recent Literature Review / Last Quarter 2019
HCS Working Groups: Thessaloniki, 20-22/2/2020
ACC Meeting: Chicago, IL, USA, 28-30/3/2020
EHRA Meeting: Vienna, 29-31/3/2020
HRS Meeting: San Diego, 6-9/5/2020
EuroPCR: Paris, 19-22/5/2020
ESC Meeting: Amsterdam, 29/8-2/9/2020
Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposure Predicts Increased Risk for Adulthood Atrial Fibrillation (AF) After Adjustment for AF Risk Factors
A study analyzed Framingham Offspring cohort participants with parents in the Original cohort with known smoking status during the offspring’s childhood, evaluated every 2-8 years and being under routine surveillance for incident AF. Of 2,816 Offspring cohort participants with at least 1 parent in the Original cohort, 82% were exposed to parental smoking. For every pack/day increase in parental smoking, there was an 18% increase in offspring AF incidence (adjusted hazard ratio - HR: 1.18; p=0.04). Additionally, parental smoking was a risk factor for offspring smoking (adjusted odds ratio - OR: 1.34; p<0.001). Offspring smoking mediated 17% of the relationship between parental smoking and offspring AF (Groh CA et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2019; 74:1658-64).
When Left Untreated, Severe Aortic Stenosis (AS) is Associated With Poor Long-Term Survival / But Also Moderate AS Confers Poor Survival Rates
Among 16,129 (6.7%), 3,315 (1.4%), and 6,383 (2.6%) patients had mild, moderate, and severe AS, respectively, on an adjusted basis (vs. no AS; 5-year mortality 19%), patients with mild to severe AS had an increasing risk of long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.44-2.09; p<0.001 for all comparisons). The 5-year mortality was 56% and 67%, respectively, in those with moderate AS (mean gradient 20.0-39.0 mmHg/peak velocity 3.0-3.9 m/s) and severe AS (≥40 mmHg, ≥4 m/s, or AV area<1 cm2 in low-flow, low-gradient severe AS). A markedly increased risk of death from all causes (5-year mortality >50%) and CV disease was evident from a mean AV gradient >20 mmHg (moderate AS) after adjusting for age, sex, LV systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and aortic regurgitation (Strange G et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2019; 74:1851-63).
Premature (Age≤45 Years) Acute or Stable Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is an Aggressive Disease Despite the Currently Recommended Prevention Measures, With High Rates of Recurrent Events and Mortality
Among 880 patients with premature CAD, aged 40.1 ± 5.7 years, mainly men, smokers, with a family history of CAD or hypercholesterolemia, at baseline presentation, 91% underwent coronary revascularization, predominantly for acute MI (79%). Over 20 years, one-third (n = 264) of patients presented with a total of 399 ischemic events, and 36% had at least a second recurrent event. MI was the most frequent first recurrent event (n=131 of 264), mostly related to new coronary lesions (17% vs 8%; p=0.01; hazard ratio - HR: 1.45 for new vs initial culprit lesion). All-cause death (n=55; 6.3%) occurred at 8.4 years (median time). Ethnic origin (sub-Saharan African vs. Caucasian, adjusted HR - adjHR: 1.95; p=0.02), inflammatory disease (adjHR: 1.58; p=0.03), and persistent smoking (adjHR: 2.32; p<0.01) were the strongest correlates of a first recurrent event. When considering all recurrent events, the same factors and Asian ethnicity predicted poor outcome, but persistent smoking had the greatest impact on prognosis (Collet J-P et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2019; 74:1868-78)... (excerpt)
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