Use of Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors Beyond Diabetes: On the Verge of a Paradigm Shift?
The sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have proven effective in glycemia control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) by increasing urinary glucose excretion. However, the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition extend beyond glycemic control, with new studies demonstrating beneficial effects that lead to improved cardiovascular (CV) (cardioprotection) and renal outcomes (renoprotection) in patients with T2D. Pivotal CV outcomes trials have demonstrated a 27-35% reduction in heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with T2D. Importantly, a variety of pleiotropic effects of these new agents have been identified that include, but are not limited to, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, decreased vascular stiffness and improved endothelial function, weight loss, reduction in sympathetic activity and in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Ongoing studies are investigating these actions in patients with and without diabetes. Such results, if positive, may lead to a paradigm shift in the management of CV, renal and even other diseases beyond diabetes. Rhythmos 2020;15(1):67-71.
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